History and symbolism

Processing into the Killian Court

Symbolism

The academic regalia generally follow the standards established by the Intercollegiate Bureau of Academic Costume, an organization formed by American educators in 1894 to bring order to a growing profusion of academic costumes. The robe for the Bachelor of Science degree has pointed sleeves and is designed to be worn closed; the robe for the Master’s degree likewise has pointed sleeves, but may be worn either opened or closed. The Doctoral degree robe, which may be worn opened or closed, has a velvet panel on each side of the front opening, extending around the neck and to the bottom of the hem in front; three horizontal velvet bars are positioned on the upper part of each of the full, bell-shaped sleeves. A distinct design for the MIT Doctoral degree robe was adopted in 1995. It is silver-gray with a cardinal red velvet panel outlined in silver-gray piping on each side of the front opening, extending around the neck to a V-point in the back and to the bottom of the hem in front. Cardinal red velvet bars outlined in silver-gray piping are positioned on the upper part of each of the sleeves. An eight-sided, silver-gray tam with a cardinal red tassel was designed to be worn with the robe. As this robe is optional, the all-black robe is also worn by those with MIT Doctoral degrees. At MIT, only recipients of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Science (ScD) degrees are invested with hoods. The Doctoral degree hood has a rounded base and is four feet long. The velvet trim signifies by color the type of Doctoral degree—for MIT, blue trim for PhD degrees and yellow for ScD degrees. The lining of the hood carries the school’s colors—cardinal red and silver-gray for MIT. For the Joint Program in Applied Ocean Science and Engineering, which leads to a single degree awarded by MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the WHOI color of Old Glory blue is added to the MIT colors in the hood lining. As the hood lies against the wearer’s back, it should be arranged so that the lining colors show.

The President’s robe

The design of President Rafael Reif ’s regalia incorporates several traditions unique to MIT’s presidential gowns. Each sleeve of the silver-gray robe has five cardinal red bars outlined in silver-gray piping; these represent MIT’s five Schools. Two cardinal red stoles bordered by silver-gray piping display 17 decorative horizontal figure 8 motifs, one for each of the MIT Presidents since William Barton Rogers, founder of the Institute. The stoles frame the dark gray panels, which are outlined in red and embroidered with the MIT seal.

The open sleeves, reminiscent of President Reif ’s Doctoral gown from Stanford University, are lined in cardinal red and fastened with dark gray frogging. A dark gray tam with a silver tassel is worn with the robe.

The ceremonial mace

The ceremonial mace carried by the Chief Marshal leading the OneMIT Ceremony procession was a gift to the Institute by the Class of 1907 on the occasion of its 50th reunion. The silver gilt mace is the creation of class member Leverett Cutten. The stylized, eight-bladed head is surmounted with a beaver—the engineer of the animal world and MIT’s mascot. Immediately below the head are two octagonal knops with a woven-design spherical knop between. Halfway down the shaft is another octagonal knop. At the base of the mace is a spherical knop depicting the seal of the Institute, a presentation inscription, and oak leaves with a pendent life-size acorn at the bottom of the knop. The oak leaves and acorn are symbols of strength. The names of the Presidents of MIT and the years of their presidencies are engraved on the shaft. Embossed on the panels of the octagonal knops are symbols for the general areas of physics (nuclear orbits and the Einstein equation), mathematics (diagram for the Pythagorean theorem), humanities (open book), biology (microscope), mechanics (enmeshed gears and turbine blades), electromagnetism (current-carrying coil), chemistry (retort), civil engineering (transit), earth sciences (globe and stars), naval science (anchor), architecture (Ionic capital), and aeronautics (wing section). It was not intended that the symbols represent courses of MIT instruction; rather, they express technological culture whose meanings would remain unchanged throughout the years.

The shepherd’s staff

The shepherd’s staff carried by the Chair of the Faculty in the principals division of the OneMIT Ceremony procession was a gift to the Institute in 1973 by outgoing Chair of the Faculty Hartley Rogers, Jr. The shaft, with its bark covering, and the carved C-shaped crook, terminating in a scrolled human leg with foot, are made of ash wood. Apropos, the shepherd’s staff symbolizes the chair’s role as leader of the faculty (the flock). Silver bands are attached to the shaft, one with the inscription, “CHAIR OF THE FACULTY, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, FLOREAT COLLEGIUM” (Latin for “may the college flourish”), and two others inscribed with the names and dates of service of the Chairs of the Faculty. This position is held for two academic years.

The MIT seal

The MIT seal was adopted on December 26, 1864 by the Corporation (MIT’s governing board) in a design recommended by the committee on the seal, of which founder and President William Barton Rogers and the Treasurer of the Institute were members. The Corporation records cover only the appointment of the committee members and the actual approval of the seal; there is no indication as to the deliberations that led to the choice of the design. The laborer at the anvil and scholar with a book embody the educational philosophy of William Barton Rogers and the other incorporators of the Institute as stated in their 1860 proposal OBJECTS AND PLAN OF AN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, that “. . . the interests of Commerce and Arts, as well as of General Education, call for the most earnest cooperation of intelligent culture with industrial pursuits.” The science and arts volumes on the pedestal and motto Mens et Manus (Latin for “mind and hand”) reflect the ideal of cooperation between knowledge and practical science. The year 1861 refers to the date (April 10) when MIT was incorporated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. A number of variations on the design have emerged through the years, but the original 1864 version remains the official seal of the Institute.